Phosphating: Unparalleled Surface Protection


Phosphate Wires

Surface treatment has been an integral part of metal finishing for centuries, and one method that has stood the test of time is phosphating. This chemical conversion process, dating back to the 19th century, has evolved and found diverse applications in modern industries. In this blog post, we explore the historical roots, general aspects, benefits, and applications of three common types of phosphating: zinc, manganese, and iron phosphating.

Historical Roots of Phosphating

The earliest work on phosphating can be traced back to the 19th century. Initially, it was used as a method to improve the corrosion resistance of iron surfaces. Over the years, researchers refined the process, and its applications expanded to various metals, including steel, aluminium, and zinc. During World War II, the technique found its initial widespread application in the production of firearms for the United States military.

General Aspects of Phosphating

Phosphating is a chemical conversion process that involves the formation of a phosphate coating on metal surfaces. It is typically performed through immersion or spraying in a solution containing phosphoric acid or other phosphates. The reaction between the metal surface and the phosphate solution results in the formation of metal phosphate compounds, creating a protective layer.

Three Common Types of Phosphating

Zinc Phosphating: This type of phosphating is widely used due to its superior corrosion resistance and paint adhesion properties. It is commonly applied to steel and iron surfaces, protecting them from rusting and ensuring better paint adhesion for subsequent coatings.

Manganese Phosphating: Manganese phosphating provides excellent wear resistance, making it ideal for applications in which metal surfaces are subject to friction, such as gears and automotive components. Additionally, it offers moderate corrosion protection.

Iron Phosphating: Iron phosphating is commonly used as a pretreatment method for steel surfaces before painting. It enhances paint adhesion and provides moderate corrosion protection.

Benefits of Phosphating

  • Corrosion Resistance: Phosphating forms a protective layer on metal surfaces, shielding them from corrosive environments, such as saline or coastal regions, and increasing their lifespan.
  • Paint Adhesion: Phosphating provides an ideal surface for the adhesion of paints, primers, and coatings, ensuring long-lasting and durable finishes.
  • Lubricity and Wear Resistance: Certain types of phosphating, like manganese phosphating, offer lubricity and wear resistance, reducing friction and extending the life of components subject to mechanical stress.

Applications in Various Industries

From automotive to aerospace, phosphating finds applications in diverse industries, ensuring that metal components stand strong against the challenges of time and the elements. The versatility of phosphating has led to its widespread adoption across numerous industries, including:

  • Automotive: Used for automotive components like fasteners, chassis, and engine parts to improve corrosion resistance and paint adhesion.
  • Aerospace: Phosphating protects aircraft components from the harsh conditions of the sky, enhancing their longevity and reliability.
  • Machinery: Metal gears, shafts, and hydraulic components benefit from phosphating’s wear resistance and anti-corrosion properties.
  • Construction: Steel used in construction applications benefits from the enhanced corrosion protection provided by phosphating.

Phosphating, with its historical roots and continued relevance in modern industries, remains a vital surface treatment process. Whether it’s zinc, manganese, or iron phosphating, this time-tested technique offers numerous benefits, including corrosion resistance, paint adhesion, and improved wear resistance. To know more about Growel’s phosphating solutions, click here.

Add A Layer Of Trust To Your Vehicle With Geomet® and Growel 

Automobiles, by design, feature metallic parts which are prone to the elements of dust, water and temperature. Corrosion resistance then becomes indispensable. In such a scenario, OEMs must use chemically plated parts, primarily Zinc-Aluminium Flake Coating, because of its versatility. 

Growel Chemicals promises the best and delivers on it. It’s no wonder then that they have a long-standing relationship with Japan’s number one Zinc Aluminium Flake Coating manufacturers NOF Metal Coating’s Asia Pacific Co. Ltd. 

In the late 90’s they introduced Dacromet® and Geomet® processes in India just as the auto industry boomed in India. Since then, Grauer & Weil have appointed over 25+ sublicensees for providing Geomet® coatings to leading OEM customers across India.

The Geomet® process is well established, superior in technology, and environment-friendly. It is used in many industries throughout the world, such as Automobiles, Windmills, Engineering, Electricals & Electronics, White Goods, Mining, Railways, Process Industry, and Defence.

So What’s The Geomet® Process?

  • Zinc Flake coatings provides outstanding protection to metallic surfaces against corrosion. 
  • The coating is known by the name ‘Geomet®’ and contains inorganic silver-grey deposits essentially comprising Zinc & Aluminum flakes, uniformly distributed on the entire substrate.

What Are The Applications Of The Geomet® Process? 

  • The Geomet® process covers the protection of various items like fasteners, springs, brake discs, etc. 
  • The application of topcoat is used as a coefficient stabilizer and additionally improves protection against corrosion. Both processes provide outstanding protection to metallic surfaces against corrosion at film thickness as low as 8~10 microns.

What Are Its Advantages?

It protects your vehicle from: 

  • Corrosion
  • Wear and tear 

How Growel Adds Value To Your Automobile

Growel supplies both the chemicals and equipment required for the Geomet® process. We not only sell but also transfer this technology to the users and aid them with:

  • Giving extensive training in our pilot plant.
  • Assisting our Licensees in equipment selection, supply, and inspection
  • Participate in Process Establishment at Licensee’s Plant.
  • Continuous regular supply of Coating Chemicals
  • Testing facility to Licensees as required
  • Troubleshooting as and when needed

Together, Growel and NOF Metal Coatings have been protecting the Indian automotive industry. To know about how we can help you, do reach out to us at our WhatsApp number: 8082048048 and send your queries to

Did You Know That An Average Large Scale Plant Manufactures Zippers For Seven Million Pairs Of Pants A Day?

The garment industry constantly evolves, with new fashion trends emerging regularly. A versatile tool, zippers are employed in haute couture, business to casual wear, as well as footwear and bags. Zippers are constantly in demand and generally manufactured on a large scale. So it is crucial to pick the correct manufacturing technique to ensure high quality and better productivity at economical pricing. So how do you plan to zip it together?

Zippers are largely considered to be the least durable components of a garment. So it is imperative to choose the ideal manufacturing process. Growel covers a wide range of surface finishing chemicals that specialize in resistance to wear while enhancing aesthetics. Our products cater to wholesalers, buyers, and contractual projects, from cost-effective solutions to performance-oriented chemicals.

A Royal Welcome 

The children’s clothing and adult fashion industries didn’t use zippers in significant numbers until the 1930s. The Prince of Wales gave things a nudge when he adopted the zip fly into his wardrobe in 1934. Around the same time, designer Elsa Schiaparelli started incorporating zippers into her sportswear and avant-garde gowns. Zippers really took off in 1937 when they caught the attention of several French fashion designers. In 1954, Levi’s introduced a particular zippered version of its overalls called the 501Z, replacing the button-fly.

Y.K.K, the Zipper

The Y.K.K. group in Japan is the biggest zip maker, which is why the letters Y.K.K. are on so many zips. Y.K.K., stamped on the pull tab of many zippers, is the abbreviated name of the company, Yoshida Kogyo Kabushikikaisha, founded in 1934 by Tadao Yoshida. It now has factories worldwide and makes more than 1.5 billion zippers a year. Y.K.K. Co. has also branched out into other fasteners and architectural building products. Thanks to the benefits others see in zippers, today, the company operates in 71 countries and has about 39,000 employees. The Y.K.K group is one of the largest buyers of Growel Chemicals.

Millions and Millions of Zips

A large modern plant can produce zippers for more than seven million pairs of pants a day. So whether you’re a zipper manufacturer or a high-end wholesaler, there are enough zips to keep the world together. 

In conclusion, the garment industry constantly evolves, with new fashion trends emerging regularly. A versatile tool, zippers are employed in haute couture, business to casual wear, as well as footwear and bags. Zippers are constantly in demand and generally manufactured on a large scale. So it is crucial to pick the correct manufacturing technique to ensure high quality and better productivity at economical pricing. Environment-friendly processes are also imperative. Irrespective of your chosen procedure, Growel’s chemical products cover a wide range of techniques. So how do you plan to zip it?

Advantages of zinc aluminum flake coating.

Different advantages of zinc aluminum flake coating are as follows :

  1. No Hydrogen embrittlement – The treatment process of zinc aluminum flake coating do not involve treatment with acid for removal of corrosion products like mill scales, rust. Mechanical cleaning (shot blasting, grit blasting) followed by coating avoids the risk of hydrogen embrittlement.
  2. Overall coverage – The coating process is non electrolytic. Articles are coated by dip mode of application or spray mode of application depending on size, weight of article. The articles are coated ensuring complete coverage.
  3. Corrosion resistance – The corrosion resistance is higher due to overall coverage and also due to sacrificial protection of zinc /aluminum flakes. The film structure is like brisk wall minimizing penetration moisture. The film also has self healing property.
  4. Thermal stability – Cured film of zinc aluminum flakes do not changes its properties even at higher temperatures. There is no degradation in corrosion resistance property.
  5. Excellent adhesion and recoat ability – Zinc aluminum flakes coating film adheres firmly to metal surface. It has also excellent recoat ability. Top coat with different lubrication properties can be applied on zinc aluminum flake coating to further enhance different properties.
  6. Free from pollution – The water-based zinc aluminum flake coating process do not involve generation of waste water. The coating is free from water and air pollution.

Generally zinc aluminum flake coating process involves cleaning to remove oil, shot blasting to remove rust/mill scales, coating and curing. Desired properties are achieved essentially with two coats. The properties are further enhanced by application of suitable top coat.

New Generation Self-pH-Regulating Mirror Bright Finish Midphos Electroless Nickel Plating (ENP): Ginplate NI 4320 AutoP

GINPLATE NI 4320 AutoP is a Midphos, self-pH-regulated electroless nickel-plating (ENP) process, which provides a mirror bright finish.

Midphos ENP is commonly used on components exposed to mild environment for corrosion/wear resistance with an aesthetic appearance.

Electroless Nickel plating is an auto catalysed redox process that deposits an even layer of Nickel-phosphorus alloy coatings on a properly prepared surface. pH plays an important role in any redox process and it tends to change during the course of the chemical reaction due to generation of H+/OHions in the reaction vessel. During electroless nickel plating, the pH drops down due to generation of H+ ion, which needs readjustment by adding Ammonia or other base to maintain the alloy composition and plating speed. Hence, an auto-pH-regulated ENP process was a long-standing demand of ENP platers.

GINPLATE NI 4320 AutoP is specially designed to produce a consistent midphos EN deposits at a very good plating speed without any additional replenishment of Ammonia. The carefully formulated additives and buffer system of GINPLATE NI 4320 AutoP provides an excellent pH and bath stability without compromising the quality and speed of the plating. Mid Phosphorus ENP acts as a low-cost alternative for decorative and functional applications.

The GINPLATE NI 4320 AutoP is supplied as three separate liquid concentrates: GINPLATE NI 4320 AutoP A, GINPLATE NI 4320 AutoP B, and GINPLATE NI 4320 AutoP C.


  • Self-pH-Regulated process
  • Robust and Hybrid buffer system
  • Good plating Speed (15 – 22 μ/hr)
  • Phosphorous content 4.5 – 8.5% w/w)
  • Mirror bright finish
  • Long bath life (10 MTO)
  • Low operating cost
  • Good wear and abrasion resistance
  • Suitable for plating on wide variety of substrates, SS, MS, CS, Cu alloy & Al alloy
  • P-Content may be fine-tuned and controlled as per requirements of jobs.
  • Magnetic Deposit (<8.5% P-content)


  • No Ammonia is required to maintain the pH. Low maintenance cost and easier to maintain plating speed and alloy composition due to constant and consistent pH over the longer bath age.
  • Uniformity, hardness and corrosion/wear resistance makes it ideal for the parts or components that function under constant pressure or dynamic condition.
  • Plating with ENP can often eliminate the need for machining or polishing due to its good surface finish and uniform thickness distribution.
  • Midphos ENP provides large flexibility of thickness, volume, and alloy composition of the plating on metal/conducting surface. It can easily fill recesses or pits on the metal surfaces. This allows its application in a wider variety parts of industrial applications.


  • Chemical process industry
  • Medical and food processing industries
  • Aerospace Industries
  • Hydraulics
  • Tools and engineering instrument
  • Oil and gas industry
  • Automobile industry

Zinc Aluminum Flake Coatings

Use of ferrous and non- ferrous material is unavoidable in the industry due to its availability, strength, durability, work-ability and ability to recycle. Automobiles, bridges, house- hold appliances, power generation equipment’s, railways, engines etc. are manufactured using ferrous and non -ferrous materials by adjusting metal properties in terms of hardness, flexibility, resistance to corrosion, weight to strength ratio etc.

Loss of metal due to various types of corrosion processes is a perennial problem in the industry. Thousands of dollars are wasted due to loss of metal (corrosion) and also thousands of dollars are invested in protecting the metal from corrosion. This in turn increases the life span of manufactured items, avoids the probable risk of accident.

Use of different types of fasteners, nuts, bolts, clips are necessary to manufacture different articles. The adequate strength required for the articles is provided by different sizes of fasteners, nuts and bolts.  Fasteners are subjected to failure due to atmospheric corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, temperature variations and bi- metallic corrosion.

Different types of phosphating systems and also painting systems with different types of resins, film thickness varying from few microns to few millimeters are used to protect the main structure. However higher film thickness of any coating is a limiting factor for fasteners.

 Different types phosphating, blackodizing, zinc plating followed by passivation layers are used to improve the corrosion protection of fasteners. However, zinc plating has limitations in terms of corrosion protection and possibility of hydrogen embrittlement. Adverse effect on environment due to use of hazardous chemicals also needs to be considered while using such coatings.

Zinc aluminum flake coating is developed with the extensive research to provide protection against all types of corrosion for fasteners, brake disc etc with a very thin film of 6~10 microns. Zinc aluminum flakes with water or solvent based, binders free from hexavalent chromium (environmentally friendly) and adequate additives to improve different properties are widely used in the industry. Even at low film thickness zinc aluminum flake coating provides excellent protection against corrosion considering different environmental cycles. Zinc aluminum flake coating also helps in preventing bi metallic corrosion.

4 Advantages of Digital Transformation in Chemical Manufacturing

The demand for the chemical industry in India is ever increasing. Chemicals have become a necessity as they have vast and varied uses.   They can have adverse effects on human health and the environment if not used appropriately. Chemical manufacturers are developing in India as there is large growth both in quantity and range.   In this era of competition, digital transformation has helped chemical manufacturers to create more opportunities.        

The Three Subcategories Of The Chemical Industry

The chemical industry has been considered as a foundational element of the global economy for the whole modern era. This has been a current scenario. It has been founded that lately, more than 96% of all manufactured goods by the chemical manufacturers in India directly depend on the chemical industry in one way or some another way. Even in united states itself, it was indeed an amazing $801 billion-dollar industry in 2015- which adds up to 25% of the nation’s overall GDP (Gross domestic product). 

An Ultimate Guide to Understand the Chemical Industry

The chemical industry has always been a foundational element of the economy globally for the entire modern era. The chemical industry is the one on which more than 96% of all manufactured goods directly depend in one or another way. As per the data, in the united states alone, it was an amazing $801 billion-dollar industry in 2015-which adds up to 25% of the nation’s overall GDP, that is, Gross Domestic Product.

Top 3 Cost Management Tips for Chemical Companies

Since a decade, the chemical manufacturers in India have progressed from non-differentiated simple manufacturing of chemicals to an advanced version of the manufacturer of R&D concentrated chemicals. The Indian chemical industry primarily began with the basic manufacturing of chemicals from petrochemicals, fertilizers etc. which were of low differentiation, more volume and high barriers.